The Von Mises quasi-linear second order wave equation, which completely describes an irrotational, compressible and barotropic classical perfect fluid, can be derived from a nontrivial least action principle for the velocity scalar potential only, in contrast to existing analog formulations which are expressed in terms of coupled density and velocity fields. In this article, the classical Hamiltonian field theory specifically associated to such an equation is developed in the polytropic case and numerically verified in a simplified situation. The existence of such a mathematical structure suggests new theoretical schemes possibly useful for performing numerical integrations of fluid dynamical equations. Moreover, it justifies possible new functional forms for Lagrangian densities and associated Hamiltonian functions in other theoretical classical physics contexts.