Commun. Comput. Phys.,
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Volume 4.

Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks

X. Q. Xu 1*, M. V. Umansky 2, B. Dudson 3, P. B. Snyder 4

1 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-630, P.O. Box 808, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550, USA; and Institute of Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.
2 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-630, P.O. Box 808, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550, USA.
3 Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK.
4 General Atomics, 13-303, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608, USA.

Received 15 May 2008; Accepted (in revised version) 5 June 2008
Available online 3 July 2008


The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (n_i), electron and ion temperature (T_e, T_i) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics.

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PACS: 52.55.Fa, 52.25.Fi, 52.30.EX, 52.30.Gz, 52.35.Ra, 52.65.Tt, 52.65.Kj, 52.65.-y
Key words: Plasma turbulence simulation, plasma two-fluids equation, field-aligned coordinates, plasma blobs.

*Corresponding author.
Email: (X. Q. Xu), (M. V. Umansky), (B. Dudson), (P. B. Snyder)

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